First U.S. Psychiatric AssociationIn 1844, the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane was formed in Philadelphia, Pa., with 13 members. This was the first U.S. psychiatric association. Its officers were Samuel B. Woodward, Samuel White and Thomas S. Kirkbride. As they prepared to meet for the first time in 1844, a major item on the agenda was the use of mechanical restraints. After extensive discussion, the superintendents concluded that they were not ready to abandon mechanical restraints. The association changed its name in 1892 to the Medico-Psychological Association, and again in 1921 to the American Psychiatric Association.